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MessagePosté le: Ven 4 Mai - 09:49 (2018)    Sujet du message: Laurent Ciman Belgique Maillot Répondre en citant

SAN FRANCISCO Jan Vertonghen Coupe du monde Maillot , Sept. 6 (Xinhua) -- A new study indicates that gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, a chemical messenger responsible for communication between cells, especially those in the brain, is key to visual acuity.

The study, conducted in rabbits and published this week in the journal Current Biology Leander Dendoncker Coupe du monde Maillot , can help explain why during the Aug. 21 total solar eclipse in the United States people and objects were easier to see than on a typical moonless night.

"It has been known for decades that there is a mechanism in the retina in the eye that helps us see small objects and detect edges on bright days, and that this mechanism gradually turns off when it is dark," noted lead researcher Stuart Mangel. "However, what this mechanism is and how it is controlled has been a mystery."

The GABA receptor, a protein, is in abundance on certain cells in the retina on sunny days Thomas Vermaelen Coupe du monde Maillot , and enhances the ability to see details and edges of objects. At night, it disappears.

The normally gradual process involves assembling and moving the GABA receptor to a specific site in the retina during bright daytime, and disassembling the same protein and moving it away from the synapse as dusk sets in.

When people are outdoors, it takes hours for the background light to decrease from bright to dark as the Earth rotates on its axis. When it becomes dark at dusk, a person's ability to see small details is much lower than during the middle of the day.

But Mangel, a professor of neuroscience at the Ohio State University College of Medicine Jordan Lukaku Coupe du monde Maillot , said he and others experienced an unusual clarity of vision during the minutes when the moon shut out the sun's rays more than two weeks ago.

"Several people I was with commented that they could see as well during totality as they could when it had been bright, and that their acuity was much better than it usually is when it is dark at dusk."

A possible explanation is that when the total eclipse took viewers from brightness to darkness in minutes, the GABA receptor would have still been present on those cells in their eyes. "The reason our acuity stayed high during the total eclipse is that there wasn't enough time for protein disassembly to take place," Mangel said.

In addition, Mangel and his colleagues found that the neurotransmitter dopamine regulates whether the GABA receptor is working. "On bright days, dopamine levels are high and signaling is strong Thibaut Courtois Coupe du monde Maillot , enhancing the detection of spatial details and edges," he was quoted as saying in a news release. "On moonless nights, however, dopamine levels are low and the GABA signal is minimal, decreasing our ability to see those details."

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THE HAGUE, Sept. 6 (Xinhua) -- The Dutch Association of Soft drinks Adnan Januzaj Belgique Maillot , Waters and Juices (FWS) announced on Wednesday that by the end of 2018 its members will no longer sell sugary soft drinks at Dutch secondary schools, a measure supporting ongoing national efforts to offer a healthier range of food and drinks in school environments.

"We want to help young people make a healthier choice," Raymond Gianotten, director of the association told RTL News about the new agreement, which is part of a commitment of the entire European soft drink industry, striving to only offer low-calorie and calorie-free soft drinks at secondary schools starting from 2019.

The "light" varieties will remain for sale. "There's nothing wrong with those. They contain no sugar Christian Kabasele Belgique Maillot , and hardly any calories. You can drink them without ingesting too many calories," explained Gianotten. According to the Dutch Nutrition Centre, products containing 30 percent less kcal, sugar, or fat than the original product are classified as "light".

The FWS, which has about 20 members including Dutch-based producers and foreign manufacturers with sales offices in the Netherlands Laurent Ciman Belgique Maillot , has already halted marketing activities aimed at children under the age of 13. It also stopped selling and promoting soft drinks at elementary schools and no longer puts branded soft drink vending machines at secondary schools.

The association currently aims at filling 60 percent of the vending machines with water and low-calorie soft drinks. With this new action for healthy nutrition at schools, it wants to contribute to further reducing obesity among young people.

In 2016, of the Dutch youngsters aged four to 20 years, 10.6 percent were moderately overweight and 2.7 percent extremely overweight, up from 8.0 percent and 2.1 percent respectively in 1981 when Statistics Netherlands (CBS) started recording these figures.

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